Chain Pickerel
Return To Search
Name and Code
Family
Esocidae - pikes
Species
Esox niger
Taxonomic Authority
Lesueur, 1818
Common Name(s)
Chain Pickerel
French Name
brochet maillé
OMNR Code
135
Family TSN
162137
Parent TSN
162138
Species TSN
162143
Conservation Status
Global Rank (GRank)
G5 (2011-12-01)
National Rank (NRank)
N3N4 (2013-05-07)
Provincial Rank (SRank)
SNA (2009-10-22)
COSEWIC Status
Not at Risk (Apr 1997)
SARO Status
none
AFS Status
none
Ecological Value
Ontario Origin
natural dispersal
General Abundance
rare
Tolerance
intermediate
Economic Importance
none
Habitat and Feeding
General Habitat(s)
lacustrine; riverine
Environment
benthopelagic
Trophic Class
carnivore
Thermal Regime
warmwater
Habitat Preference
clear backwaters and quiet pools of creeks and small to medium-sized rivers, ponds and shallow (<3 m) lakes with abundant aquatic vegetation; preferred water temperature range 21-30°C
Reproduction
Reproductive Guild
Nonguarders: Open substratum spawners: Phytophils
Spawning Habitat(s)
lacustrine; riverine
Spawning Season
spring
Spawning Month(s)
April-May
Spawning Temperature (°C)
6-11
Fecundity
6,102-29,928
Nursery Habitat(s)
lacustrine; riverine
Size and Age
Adult Length (cm)
30.5-63.5 TL
Adult Weight (kg)
0.17-1.84
Age at Maturity (yrs)
3-5
Maximum Length (cm)
99.1 TL
Maximum Weight (kg)
5.6
Lifespan (yrs)
8-10
Ontario Range Map
Chain Pickerel range
Ontario Distribution
St. Lawrence River, eastern Lake Ontario (Bay of Quinte); first reported from Ontario waters of the upper St. Lawrence River in April 2008
Photograph
Chain Pickerel photograph
Notes
hybrids with Northern Pike and Grass Pickerel are reported; tolerant of high water temperature (36.7°C) and low pH (3.8); sensitive to high pH
Ontario Records
Record Length (cm)
64.7 TL
Record Weight (kg)
2.023
Information Sources
Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder, and J.B. Stribling. 1999. Tolerance and trophic guilds of selected fish species. Appendix C in Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and wadeable rivers: periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, second edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water. Washington, DC.
Bernatchez, L. and M. Giroux. 2000. Les poissons d’eau douce du Québec et leur répartition dans l’Est du Canada. Broquet Inc. Saint-Constant, QC. 350 pp.
Carlander, K.D. 1969. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Volume one. Life history data on freshwater fishes of the United States and Canada, exclusive of the Perciformes. Iowa State University Press. Ames, IA. vi + 752 pp.
Coad, B.W. with H. Waszczuk and I. Labignan. 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions. Ottawa and Waterdown, ON. viii + 928 pp.
Coffie, P.A. 1998. Status of the Chain Pickerel, Esox niger, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 112(1):133-140.
Coker, G.A., C.B. Portt, and C.K. Minns. 2001. Morphological and ecological characteristics of Canadian freshwater fishes. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2554:iv+89p.
Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press. University Park and London. vii + 243 pp.
COSEWIC. 2017. Canadian wildlife species at risk. October 2017. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Gatineau, QC. iv + 119 pp.
Cudmore-Vokey, B. and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2550:v+39p.
Desroches, J-F. and I. Picard. 2013. Poissons d’eau douce du Québec et des Maritimes. Éditions Michel Quintin. Waterloo, QC. 471 pp.
Ditz, K., A. Dextrase, and E. Holm. 2009. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources fish species codes & common names. Ichthyology and Herpetology, Royal Ontario Museum. May 1994. Revised September 2005 by A. Dextrase, MNR and modified January 2009 by E. Holm, ROM.
Etnier, D.A. and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. [2nd printing, 2001]. The University of Tennessee Press. Knoxville, TN. xiv + 689 pp.
Goldstein, R.M. and T.P. Simon. 1999. Toward a united definition of guild structure for feeding ecology of North American freshwater fishes. Pages 123-202 in T.P. Simon [Ed]. Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. xx + 671 pp.
Halliwell, D.B., R.W. Langdon, R.A. Daniels, J.P. Kurtenbach, and R.A. Jacobson. 1999. Classification of freshwater fishes of the northeastern United States for use in the development of indices of biological integrity. Pages 301-337 in T.P. Simon [Ed]. Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. xx + 671 pp.
Holm, E., N. Mandrak, and M. Burridge. 2009. The ROM field guide to freshwater fishes of Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum Science Publication. Toronto, ON. 462 pp.
Hoyle, J.A. and C. Lake. 2011. First occurrence of Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) in Ontario: possible range expansion from New York waters of eastern Lake Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. 125(1): 16–21.
Hubbs, C.L. and K.F. Lagler. 1964. Fishes of the Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. xv + 213 pp.
Hubbs, C.L., K.F. Lagler, and G.R. Smith. 2004. Fishes of the Great Lakes region, revised edition. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. xvii + 276 pp.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 2014. On-line database. (http://www.itis.gov), accessed 07 June 2014.
Jenkins, R.E. and N.M. Burkhead. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD. xxiii + 1079 pp.
Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History Publication 1980-12. Raleigh, NC. x + 867 pp.
Mandrak, N.E. and E.J. Crossman. 1992. A checklist of Ontario freshwater fishes annotated with distribution maps. Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publication. Toronto, ON. v + 176 pp.
Meador, R.M. and D.M. Carlisle. 2007. Quantifying tolerance indicator values for common stream fishes of the United States. Ecol. Indicators. 7:329-338.
NatureServe. 2015. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe. Arlington, Virginia. (http://www.natureserve.org/explorer), accessed 11 June 2016.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico, second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Boston, MA. xix + 663 pp.
Page, L.M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea, N.E. Mandrak, R.L. Mayden, and J.S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 7th Edition. American Fisheries Society, Spec. Publ. 34. Bethesda, MD. 243 pp.
Ross, S.T. 2001. The inland fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi. xx + 624 pp.
Scott, W.B. 1967. Freshwater fishes of eastern Canada, second edition. University of Toronto Press. Toronto, ON. xii + 137 pp.
Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184. [1998 Reprint] Galt House Publications Ltd. Oakville, ON. xx + 966 pp.
Scharpf, C. 2006. Annotated checklist of North American freshwater fishes, including subspecies and undescribed forms. Part II: Catostomidae through Mugilidae. American Currents 32(4):1-39.
Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. xi + 522 pp.
Stauffer, Jr., J.R., J.M. Boltz and L.R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Reprinted from The Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389. Pennsylvania State University. 389 pp.
Stauffer, Jr., J.R., R.W. Criswell and D.P. Fischer. 2016. The fishes of Pennsylvania. Cichlid Press. El Paso, TX. 556 pp.
Trautman, M.B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio with illustrated keys, revised edition. Ohio State University Press. Columbus, OH. xxv + 782 pp.
Wallus, R., B.L. Yeager, and T.P. Simon. 1990. Reproductive biology and early life history of fishes in the Ohio River drainage. Volume 1. Acipenseridae through Esocidae. Tennessee Valley Authority. Chattanooga, TN. vii + 273 pp.
Werner, R.G. 2004. Freshwater fishes of the northeastern United States: a field guide. Syracuse University Press. Syracuse, NY. xiv + 335 pp.